Why Was The Munich Agreement Important
From 29 to 30 September 1938, an emergency meeting of the greatest European powers took place in Munich – without Czechoslovakia or the Soviet Union, an ally of France and Czechoslovakia. An agreement was quickly reached on Hitler`s terms. It was signed by the leaders of Germany, France, Britain and Italy. Militarily, the Sudetenland was of strategic importance to Czechoslovakia, as most of its border defenses were there to protect against a German attack. The agreement between the four powers was signed in the context of a low-intensity German-Czechoslovak war, which had begun on September 17, 1938. Meanwhile, Poland moved its army units to its common border with Czechoslovakia after September 23, 1938.  Czechoslovakia yielded to diplomatic pressure from France and Britain and agreed on September 30 to cede territories to Germany on Munich terms. Fearing the possible loss of Zaolzie to Germany, Poland issuing Zaolzie with an ultimatum with a majority of ethnic Poles, which Germany had accepted in advance and Czechoslovakia on 1 October.  On September 28 at 10:00.m., four hours before the deadline and without accepting Hitler`s request to Czechoslovakia, the British ambassador to Italy, Lord Perth, called Italian Foreign Minister Galeazzo Ciano to request an urgent meeting.  Perth told Ciano that Chamberlain had asked him to ask Mussolini to enter into negotiations and urge Hitler to postpone the ultimatum.  At 11:00.m., Ciano met Mussolini and informed him of Chamberlain`s proposal; Mussolini agreed and responded by calling the Italian ambassador to Germany and telling him: „Go immediately to the Führer and tell him that whatever happens, I will be at his side, but that I ask for a delay of twenty-four hours before the start of hostilities. In the meantime, I`ll explore what can be done to fix the problem.
 Hitler received Mussolini`s message during talks with the French ambassador. Hitler told the ambassador: „My good friend, Benito Mussolini, asked me to postpone the marching orders of the German army by twenty-four hours, and I agreed. Of course, this was not a concession, as the date of the invasion dates back to 1. October 1938.  Addressing Chamberlain, Lord Perth thanked Chamberlain Mussolini and Chamberlain for asking Mussolini to attend a four-member conference from Britain, France, Germany and Italy in Munich on September 29 to resolve the Sudetenland problem before the 2:00 p.m. deadline. Mussolini agreed.  Hitler`s only demand was to ensure that Mussolini was included in the conference negotiations.  When U.S. President Franklin D.
Roosevelt learned that the conference was scheduled, he telegraphed Chamberlain: „Good Man.“  After learning that the areas inhabited by Poles were to be handed over to Germany, Poland issued a note to the Czechoslovak government „calling for the immediate conclusion of an agreement under which Polish territory should unquestionably be occupied by Polish troops; this was followed by an agreement on referendums in the districts with a large share of the Polish population.  An agreement was reached on September 29 and .m at about 1:30 a.m. .m.